A study by Pretorius and Klopper (66 in 2012), which looked at the profile of intensive care staff, showed that only 72% and 80% of the required nursing staff positions were filled in public and private hospitals in South Africa. Health facilities in urban areas were designed and built for a number of people. The sudden influx of people into cities is forcing health facilities to operate beyond their intended capacity. This results in understaffing and overcrowding, leading to a decline in the quality of health care in urban hospitals (Kamndaya et al. 2014: 581). Public health outcomes in South Africa point to a total failure of public sector health care, with worse outcomes than some low-income countries (Centre for Development and Enterprise 2011: 45, Pillay-van Wyk et al. 2016: e642), due to misconduct and mismanagement, and is reflected in a lack of vision, lack of clear philosophy and poor goals (Carney 2009: 34; Pillay-van Wyk et al. 2016: e642). TimesLIVE (14 June 2018) expressed the concerns of some members of the public about the lack of equipment in hospitals, which leads to fatal delays in urgent operations. Delayed work leads to longer delays in some patients waiting for treatment, such as cancer patients affected by the lack of oncology doctors and equipment, and long waiting lists for surgery or diagnosis, especially due to lack of equipment. According to the report, long wait times for medical procedures could lead to complications or even loss of life for patients; According to the report, public hospitals have become a “death trap for the poor” (TimesLIVE 2018: 5).
A study by Mokoena (2017: 67) showed the lack of material resources, equipment and provisions (e.g. glucometers for monitoring blood glucose and needles for lumbar puncture during the examination or diagnosis of meningitis), which leads to a prolonged stay of the patient in the hospital. Participants also mentioned that the CT scan was not in good condition and that, as a result, patients were transferred to other hospitals for examination or had to wait for the machine to be repaired, which led to delayed diagnosis and treatment (Mokoena 2017). . . .